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The four main forms of academic writing are descriptive, analytical, critical and persuasive.

In several texts that are academic will need to use one or more type. For example, in an thesis that is empirical

  • you certainly will use critical writing into the literature review to demonstrate where there is certainly a gap or opportunity into the existing research
  • The methods section shall be mostly descriptive to summarise the strategy used to collect and analyse information
  • the results section will likely to be mostly descriptive and analytical while you report on the data you collected
  • the discussion section is much more analytical, as you relate your findings back into your quest questions, as well as persuasive, while you propose your interpretations for the findings.


The simplest type of academic writing is descriptive. Its purpose is to provide facts or information. An illustration will be a directory of an article or a written report of this total link between an experiment.

The sorts of instructions for a assignment that is purely descriptive: identify, report, record, summarise and define.


It’s rare for a text that is university-level be purely descriptive. Most academic writing is also analytical. Analytical writing includes descriptive writing, you also re-organise the facts and information you describe into categories, groups, parts, types or relationships.

Sometimes, these categories or relationships are usually an element of the discipline, sometimes you may create them especially for your text. For instance, if you’re comparing two theories, you might break your comparison into several parts, for example: how each theory relates to social context, how each theory deals with language learning, and exactly how each theory can be used in practice.

The kinds of instructions for an analytical assignment include: analyse, compare, contrast, relate, examine.

To create your writing more analytical:

  • spend the required time planning. Brainstorm the facts and ideas, and attempt other ways of grouping them, relating to patterns, parts, similarities and differences. Make use of colour-coding, flow charts, tree diagrams or tables.
  • Create a true name for the relationships and categories you discover. As an example, pros and cons.
  • build each section and paragraph around one of many categories that are analytical.
  • make the structure of your paper clear to your reader, through the use of topic sentences and a clear introduction.
  • In most academic writing, you need to go one or more step further than analytical writing, to persuasive writing. Persuasive writing has all the features of analytical writing (that is, information plus re-organising the information and knowledge), by adding your point that is own of. Most essays are persuasive, and there’s a persuasive element in at least the discussion and conclusion of an investigation article.

    Points of view in academic writing range from a disagreement, a recommendation, interpretation of findings or evaluation associated with the ongoing work of others. Each claim you make needs to be supported by some evidence, for example a reference to research findings or published sources in persuasive writing.

    The kinds of instructions for a assignment that is persuasive: argue, evaluate, discuss, take a position.

    To help reach finally your own point of view on the facts or ideas:

    • read some other researchers’ points of take on the subject. Who do you are feeling is considered the most convincing?
    • search for patterns when you look at the data or references. Where could be the evidence strongest?
    • list several different interpretations. Exactly what are the real-life implications of each one? Which ones will tend to be most useful or beneficial? Those that possess some problems?
    • Discuss the known facts and ideas with another person. Can you agree with their point of view?

    To build up your argument:

    • list the different reasons for your point of view
    • consider the various sorts and sourced elements of evidence which you can use to support your point of view
    • consider other ways that your point of view is comparable to, and different from, the points of view of other researchers
    • seek out other ways to break your point of view into parts. For instance, cost effectiveness, environmental sustainability, do my essay scope of real-world application.

    To provide your argument, be sure:

    • your text develops a argument that is coherent all the individual claims come together to aid your overall point of view
    • your reasoning for every claim is clear towards the reader
    • your assumptions are valid
    • you have got evidence for every single claim you make
    • you employ evidence this is certainly convincing and directly relevant.

    Critical writing is common for research, postgraduate and advanced undergraduate writing. It has all the features of persuasive writing, aided by the added feature of at least an added point of view. While persuasive writing requires you to have your very own point of take on a problem or topic, critical writing requires you to consider at the least two points of view, including your own.

    As an example, you might explain a researcher’s interpretation or argument and then assess the merits associated with the argument, or give your personal interpretation that is alternative.

    Examples of critical writing assignments include a critique of a journal article, or a literature review that identifies the strengths and weaknesses of existing research. The sorts of instructions for critical writing include: critique, debate, disagree, evaluate.

    • accurately summarise all or the main work. This can include identifying the interpretations that are main assumptions or methodology.
    • have an opinion in regards to the work. Appropriate kinds of opinion could include pointing out some difficulties with it, proposing an alternative approach that will be better, and/or defending the job resistant to the critiques of others
    • provide evidence for the point of view. With respect to the specific assignment and the discipline, different types of evidence could be appropriate, such as for example logical reasoning, reference to authoritative sources and/or research data.

    Critical writing requires strong writing skills. You ought to thoroughly comprehend the topic and the issues. You ought to develop an essay structure and paragraph structure that enables you to analyse different interpretations and build your own argument, supported by evidence.

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